CT and MRI features of bowel perforation

What are the CT and MRI features of bowel perforation?

CT and MRI findings include direct visualization of a site of focal disruption in the wall of the bowel; pneumoperitoneum (when there is rupture of an intraperitoneal portion of bowel); pneumoretroperitoneum (when there is rupture of a retroperitoneal portion of bowel); gas bubbles, focal fluid, or inflammatory changes adjacent to the site of perforation; and leakage of fluid (bowel contents) or oral contrast material into the peritoneum or retroperitoneum. If associated peritonitis is present, thickening and enhancement of the peritoneum may be seen.


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