What are the common causes of hyperkalemia?
Pseudohyperkalemia may be due to hemolysis-related potassium release after phlebotomy, ischemia from increased tourniquet time, increased red cell fragility due to rheumatoid arthritis, infectious mononucleosis, red cell membrane disorders, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and thrombocytosis. Redistribution of potassium from ICF to ECF may occur with hyperosmolarity seen with severe hyperglycemia, severe nonorganic acidosis, and also with medications like β-blockers and digoxin that prevent cellular potassium uptake. Increased potassium intake as food, supplementation, or salt substitutes in the setting of impaired kidney function. Decreased kidney potassium excretion due to acute kidney injury, CKD, medications, or rare genetic disorders like Gordon syndrome.