1. Intramedullary lesions cause sacral sparing sensory loss and symptoms that appear to descend (as the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and finally sacral regions are affected).
2. Sudden damage to the spinal cord can cause spinal shock, which results in temporary flaccid paralysis, hyporeflexia, sensory loss, and loss of bladder tone.
3. Occlusion of the artery of Adamkiewicz may result in anterior spinal artery syndrome, causing bilateral weakness, loss of pain and temperature, and hyperreflexia below the lesion with preserved dorsal column functions (position and vibration).
4. Cauda equina syndrome is a neurosurgical emergency that presents with weakness and sensory loss in the lower extremity, prominent radicular pain, saddle anesthesia, and late-occurring urinary incontinence.