What are the causes of bladder fistulae?
Colovesical fistulae, between the colon and bladder are related to colonic diverticulitis in >80% of cases. Colon carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn’s disease, are less common causes.
Vesicovaginal fistulae, between the vaginal and bladder, are related to childbirth trauma in the majority of women, whether due to prolonged obstructed labor or traumatic forceps delivery. Cesarean sections are a much less common cause of vesicovaginal fistulae. Tumors of the cervix can also erode into the bladder, resulting in fistulae, particularly after radiation therapy.