Acute chest syndrome

What is acute chest syndrome?

Acute chest syndrome affects patients with sickle cell anemia and may present with cough, hypoxia, fever, sputum production, and shortness of breath. While the exact pathogenesis is poorly understood, it may be caused by an acute vaso-occlusive crisis in the pulmonary parenchyma or adjacent ribs. Radiographically, areas of pulmonary opacification are typically seen with a basilar predominance, which may be secondary to edema, infarction, fat embolism, and/or infection, sometimes in association with pleural effusion.

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