Nifedipine

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Nifedipine Brand Names

Adalat | Adalat CC | Afeditab CR | Nifediac CC | Nifedical XL | Procardia | Procardia XL

What is Nifedipine

Nifedipine is the prototype of the dihydropyridine class of calcium-channel antagonists.

It is structurally and pharmacologically similar to other dihydropyridines including amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, and nicardipine.

In general, the dihydropyridine-type calcium-channel antagonists have more prominent effects on vasodilation and coronary flow relative to diltiazem and verapamil. Unlike both diltiazem and verapamil, however, nifedipine has negligible effects on AV nodal conduction.

This difference is attributed to the fact that nifedipine binds to a different site in the calcium channel.

Nifedipine is used in the treatment of Prinzmetal’s angina, hypertension, and other vascular disorders such as Raynaud’s phenomenon†.

Nifedipine is available in immediate-release and extended-release dosage forms. The immediate-release nifedipine dosage forms should only be used to treat patients with chronic stable or vasospastic angina angina; the immediate-release formulation is associated with serious side effects when used to treat patients with hypertension, hypertensive urgency, hypertensive emergency, or coexisting myocardial infarction.

Although its actions were described in 1972, nifedipine was not approved by the FDA until 1981.

Indications

  1. achalasia
  2. altitude sickness
  3. altitude sickness prophylaxis
  4. diabetic nephropathy
  5. hypertension
  6. hypertensive emergency
  7. hypertensive urgency
  8. migraine prophylaxis
  9. premature labor
  10. proteinuria
  11. singultus (hiccups)
  12. variant angina

For the treatment of ischemic heart disease including variant angina (Prinzmetal’s angina) and chronic stable angina pectoris

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)
  3. alopecia
  4. amblyopia
  5. anaphylactoid reactions
  6. anemia
  7. angina
  8. angioedema
  9. anxiety
  10. arrhythmia exacerbation
  11. arthralgia
  12. asthenia
  13. ataxia
  14. atrial fibrillation
  15. back pain
  16. bezoar
  17. blurred vision
  18. bradycardia
  19. breast enlargement
  20. cardiac arrest
  21. chest pain (unspecified)
  22. chills
  23. cholestasis
  24. confusion
  25. conjunctivitis
  26. constipation
  27. cough
  28. depression
  29. diarrhea
  30. diplopia
  31. dizziness
  32. drowsiness
  33. dysgeusia
  34. dyspepsia
  35. dysphagia
  36. dyspnea
  37. dysuria
  38. elevated hepatic enzymes
  39. eosinophilia
  40. epistaxis
  41. eructation
  42. erythema multiforme
  43. esophagitis
  44. exfoliative dermatitis
  45. fatigue
  46. fever
  47. flatulence
  48. flushing
  49. gastroesophageal reflux
  50. GI bleeding
  51. GI obstruction
  52. gingival hyperplasia
  53. gout
  54. gynecomastia
  55. headache
  56. heart failure
  57. hematuria
  58. hemolytic anemia
  59. hepatitis
  60. hot flashes
  61. hyperglycemia
  62. hyperhidrosis
  63. hypertonia
  64. hypoesthesia
  65. hypotension
  66. impotence (erectile dysfunction)
  67. increased urinary frequency
  68. insomnia
  69. jaundice
  70. lacrimation
  71. leukopenia
  72. libido decrease
  73. lymphadenopathy
  74. malaise
  75. mastalgia
  76. melena
  77. migraine
  78. muscle cramps
  79. myalgia
  80. myasthenia
  81. myocardial infarction
  82. nasal congestion
  83. nausea
  84. nephrolithiasis
  85. nightmares
  86. nocturia
  87. ocular hemorrhage
  88. orthostatic hypotension
  89. palpitations
  90. paranoia
  91. paresthesias
  92. pelvic pain
  93. peptic ulcer
  94. peripheral edema
  95. peripheral vasodilation
  96. petechiae
  97. pharyngitis
  98. phlebitis
  99. photosensitivity
  100. polyuria
  101. premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
  102. pruritus
  103. purpura
  104. pyrosis (heartburn)
  105. rash
  106. rhinitis
  107. sinus tachycardia
  108. sinusitis
  109. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  110. syncope
  111. throat irritation
  112. thrombocytopenia
  113. tinnitus
  114. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  115. tremor
  116. urticaria
  117. vertigo
  118. visual impairment
  119. vomiting
  120. weakness
  121. weight gain
  122. weight loss
  123. wheezing
  124. xerostomia

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood pressure
  • heart rate

Contraindications

  • acute myocardial infarction
  • aortic stenosis
  • bradycardia
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiogenic shock
  • children
  • colostomy
  • constipation
  • coronary artery disease
  • diabetes mellitus
  • dihydropyridine hypersensitivity
  • diverticulitis
  • esophageal stricture
  • gastric cancer
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • geriatric
  • GI obstruction
  • heart failure
  • hepatic disease
  • hiatal hernia
  • hypotension
  • hypothyroidism
  • ileus
  • infants
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • lactase deficiency
  • obesity
  • pregnancy
  • ventricular dysfunction

Interactions

  • Acebutolol
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Aldesleukin, IL-2
  • Alemtuzumab
  • Alfentanil
  • Alfuzosin
  • Alogliptin; Metformin
  • Alogliptin; Pioglitazone
  • Alprazolam
  • Alprostadil
  • Amifostine
  • Aminolevulinic Acid
  • Amiodarone
  • Amlodipine; Celecoxib
  • Amobarbital
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole
  • Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts
  • Amprenavir
  • Amyl Nitrite
  • Apalutamide
  • Apomorphine
  • Apraclonidine
  • Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant
  • Aripiprazole
  • Asenapine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Atazanavir
  • Atazanavir; Cobicistat
  • Atenolol
  • Atenolol; Chlorthalidone
  • Atropine; Hyoscyamine; Phenobarbital; Scopolamine
  • Avanafil
  • Baclofen
  • Barbiturates
  • Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital
  • Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol
  • Benzonatate
  • Benzphetamine
  • Beta-blockers
  • Betaxolol
  • Bisoprolol
  • Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Bortezomib
  • Bosentan
  • Brimonidine; Timolol
  • Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Butabarbital
  • Cabergoline
  • Canagliflozin; Metformin
  • Carbamazepine
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine
  • Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbidopa; Levodopa
  • Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone
  • Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  • Cariprazine
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Celecoxib
  • Ceritinib
  • Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Chloroprocaine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cimetidine
  • Cisapride
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clozapine
  • Co-Enzyme Q10, Ubiquinone
  • Cobicistat
  • Cocaine
  • Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Conivaptan
  • Crizotinib
  • Cyclosporine
  • Danazol
  • Dantrolene
  • Dapagliflozin; Metformin
  • Darunavir
  • Darunavir; Cobicistat
  • Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide
  • Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Delavirdine
  • Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Dexmethylphenidate
  • Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Quinidine
  • Diazoxide
  • Diclofenac
  • Diclofenac; Misoprostol
  • Diethylpropion
  • Diflunisal
  • Digoxin
  • Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diltiazem
  • Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen
  • Diphenhydramine; Naproxen
  • Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Disopyramide
  • Dorzolamide; Timolol
  • Dronedarone
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate
  • Duloxetine
  • Dutasteride; Tamsulosin
  • Efavirenz
  • Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir
  • Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
  • Elbasvir; Grazoprevir
  • Elexacaftor; tezacaftor; ivacaftor
  • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide
  • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
  • Empagliflozin
  • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin
  • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Empagliflozin; Metformin
  • Enflurane
  • Enzalutamide
  • Ephedrine
  • Epirubicin
  • Eplerenone
  • Epoprostenol
  • Ergonovine
  • Ertugliflozin; Metformin
  • Erythromycin
  • Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole
  • Esmolol
  • Esomeprazole; Naproxen
  • Estradiol
  • Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel
  • Etodolac
  • Etomidate
  • Famotidine; Ibuprofen
  • Fedratinib
  • Fenoprofen
  • Fentanyl
  • Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Dietary Supplements)
  • Flecainide
  • Fluconazole
  • Fluoxetine
  • Fluoxetine; Olanzapine
  • Flurbiprofen
  • Fosamprenavir
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Fospropofol
  • Gallium Ga 68 Dotatate
  • General anesthetics
  • Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba
  • Ginseng, Panax ginseng
  • Glimepiride; Pioglitazone
  • Glipizide; Metformin
  • Glyburide; Metformin
  • grapefruit juice
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Haloperidol
  • Halothane
  • Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol
  • Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen
  • Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Ibuprofen
  • Ibuprofen; Oxycodone
  • Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Idelalisib
  • Iloperidone
  • Iloprost
  • Imatinib
  • Indinavir
  • Indocyanine Green
  • Indomethacin
  • Intravenous Lipid Emulsions
  • Isavuconazonium
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Isoflurane
  • Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin
  • Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin
  • Isoproterenol
  • Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN
  • Isosorbide Mononitrate
  • Itraconazole
  • Ivacaftor
  • Ketamine
  • Ketoconazole
  • Ketoprofen
  • Ketorolac
  • Labetalol
  • Lacosamide
  • Lanreotide
  • Lansoprazole; Naproxen
  • Lasmiditan
  • Lefamulin
  • Lesinurad
  • Lesinurad; Allopurinol
  • Letermovir
  • Levobetaxolol
  • Levobunolol
  • Levodopa
  • Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Lisdexamfetamine
  • Lithium
  • Lopinavir; Ritonavir
  • Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Lovastatin; Niacin
  • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Lurasidone
  • Magnesium
  • Mannitol
  • Maraviroc
  • Meclofenamate Sodium
  • Mefenamic Acid
  • Melatonin
  • Meloxicam
  • Mephobarbital
  • Mestranol; Norethindrone
  • Metformin
  • Metformin; Pioglitazone
  • Metformin; Repaglinide
  • Metformin; Rosiglitazone
  • Metformin; Saxagliptin
  • Metformin; Sitagliptin
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methohexital
  • Methoxsalen
  • Methylphenidate
  • Methysergide
  • Metoprolol
  • Micafungin
  • Mifepristone
  • Milrinone
  • Mitotane
  • Moricizine
  • Nabumetone
  • Nadolol
  • Naproxen
  • Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Naproxen; Sumatriptan
  • Nebivolol
  • Nebivolol; Valsartan
  • Nefazodone
  • Nelfinavir
  • Nesiritide, BNP
  • Neuromuscular blockers
  • Nevirapine
  • Niacin, Niacinamide
  • Niacin; Simvastatin
  • Nitrates
  • Nitroglycerin
  • Nitroprusside
  • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
  • Octreotide
  • Olanzapine
  • Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin
  • Oritavancin
  • Oxaprozin
  • Oxymetazoline
  • Paliperidone
  • Pasireotide
  • Penbutolol
  • Pentobarbital
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Phenelzine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenylephrine
  • Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Phenytoin
  • Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
  • Photosensitizing agents (topical)
  • Pindolol
  • Pioglitazone
  • Piroxicam
  • Posaconazole
  • Prazosin
  • Primidone
  • Procainamide
  • Procaine
  • Propafenone
  • Propofol
  • Propranolol
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Quinidine
  • Ranitidine
  • Rasagiline
  • Remifentanil
  • Ribociclib
  • Ribociclib; Letrozole
  • Rifabutin
  • Rifampin
  • Rifapentine
  • Risperidone
  • Ritonavir
  • Rofecoxib
  • Saquinavir
  • Secobarbital
  • Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Selegiline
  • Sevoflurane
  • Sildenafil
  • Silodosin
  • Simeprevir
  • Sincalide
  • Sotalol
  • St. John’s Wort, Hypericum perforatum
  • Sufentanil
  • Sulindac
  • Tacrolimus
  • Tadalafil
  • Tamsulosin
  • Telithromycin
  • Temsirolimus
  • Tetrabenazine
  • Tetracaine
  • Tezacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Thalidomide
  • Thiopental
  • Thiothixene
  • Timolol
  • Tipranavir
  • Tolmetin
  • Trandolapril; Verapamil
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Trazodone
  • Tucatinib
  • Urea
  • Valdecoxib
  • Vardenafil
  • Verapamil
  • Verteporfin
  • Vincristine
  • Vincristine Liposomal
  • Voriconazole
  • Warfarin
  • Yohimbine
  • Zafirlukast
  • Ziprasidone

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