Glipizide

Glipizide Brand Names- Glucotrol | Glucotrol XL

What is Glipizide

Glipizide is an oral sulfonylurea. It is a member of the ‘second-generation’ of high potency sulfonylurea agents that include glyburide and glimepiride. Glipizide has a shorter duration of action than glyburide and is not metabolized to active metabolites.

Glipizide is used as an adjunct to diet to lower blood glucose in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and may be used in combination with other appropriate antidiabetic agents.

Glipizide is often added to metformin with or without other antidiabetic agents in patients who need further medication to achieve A1C and blood glucose target goals.

Metformin is first-line in the treatment of type 2 DM. In patients with established cardiovascular (CV) disease, heart failure (HF), or chronic kidney disease (CKD), a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) with proven CV benefit and reduction of CKD progression is recommended for add-on therapy, independent of baseline A1C or individualized A1C target.

In patients without indicators of high-risk or established CVD, HF, or CKD, sulfonylureas are an option that as a class generally reduce hemoglobin A1C by 1% to 2%; however, the second-generation agents are preferred over first-generation agents due to a lower risk of hypoglycemia and favorable cost, efficacy, and safety profiles.

In the elderly patient and patients with renal dysfunction, a shorter-duration sulfonylurea such as glipizide is preferred over glyburide.

Disadvantages of sulfonylurea therapy include hypoglycemia (especially in the elderly), weight gain, and frequent loss of efficacy over time; however, the weight gain is relatively modest in large cohort studies and the incidence of severe hypoglycemia is lower than with insulin

Indications

  • type 2 diabetes mellitus

For the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. agranulocytosis
  3. angioedema
  4. anorexia
  5. anxiety
  6. aplastic anemia
  7. arthralgia
  8. atopic dermatitis
  9. blurred vision
  10. cholestasis
  11. confusion
  12. constipation
  13. diarrhea
  14. dizziness
  15. drowsiness
  16. dyspepsia
  17. elevated hepatic enzymes
  18. flatulence
  19. flushing
  20. gastritis
  21. GI bleeding
  22. headache
  23. hemolysis
  24. hepatic failure
  25. hepatitis
  26. hyperhidrosis
  27. hypertonia
  28. hypoesthesia
  29. hypoglycemia
  30. hyponatremia
  31. insomnia
  32. jaundice
  33. leukopenia
  34. libido decrease
  35. maculopapular rash
  36. myalgia
  37. nausea
  38. pancytopenia
  39. paresthesias
  40. photosensitivity
  41. porphyria
  42. pruritus
  43. pyrosis (heartburn)
  44. rash
  45. secondary failure
  46. SIADH
  47. thrombocytopenia
  48. tremor
  49. urticaria
  50. vasculitis
  51. vertigo
  52. vomiting
  53. weight gain

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood glucose
  • glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity
  • glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)

Contraindications

  • adrenal insufficiency
  • breast-feeding
  • burns
  • children
  • diabetic ketoacidosis
  • diarrhea
  • fever
  • G6PD deficiency
  • geriatric
  • GI obstruction
  • hemolytic anemia
  • hepatic disease
  • hypercortisolism
  • hyperglycemia
  • hyperthyroidism
  • hypoglycemia
  • hypothyroidism
  • ileus
  • infection
  • malnutrition
  • neonates
  • obstetric delivery
  • pituitary insufficiency
  • porphyria
  • pregnancy
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • sulfonamide hypersensitivity
  • sulfonylurea hypersensitivity
  • surgery
  • trauma
  • type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • vomiting

Interactions

  • Acebutolol
  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene
  • Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acitretin
  • Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Aliskiren; Valsartan
  • Alogliptin; Metformin
  • Aluminum Hydroxide
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone
  • Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate
  • Aminolevulinic Acid
  • Amiodarone
  • Amlodipine; Benazepril
  • Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan
  • Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan
  • Amlodipine; Olmesartan
  • Amlodipine; Telmisartan
  • Amlodipine; Valsartan
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Lansoprazole
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole
  • Amphetamine
  • Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine
  • Amprenavir
  • Androgens
  • Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Antacids
  • Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant
  • Aripiprazole
  • Articaine; Epinephrine
  • Asenapine
  • Aspirin, ASA
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone
  • Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin
  • Atazanavir
  • Atazanavir; Cobicistat
  • Atenolol
  • Atenolol; Chlorthalidone
  • atypical antipsychotic
  • Azilsartan
  • Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone
  • Benazepril
  • Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol
  • Benzphetamine
  • Beta-blockers
  • Betaxolol
  • Bexarotene
  • Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline
  • Bismuth Subsalicylate
  • Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline
  • Bisoprolol
  • Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Bortezomib
  • Bosentan
  • Brexpiprazole
  • Brimonidine; Timolol
  • Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Bumetanide
  • Calcium Carbonate
  • Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate
  • Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone
  • Canagliflozin; Metformin
  • Candesartan
  • Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Cannabidiol
  • Captopril
  • Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine
  • Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  • Cariprazine
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chloroquine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorthalidone; Clonidine
  • Cholestyramine
  • Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate
  • Chromium
  • Cimetidine
  • Cisapride
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clindamycin; Tretinoin
  • Clonidine
  • Clozapine
  • Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Colchicine; Probenecid
  • Colesevelam
  • Conjugated Estrogens
  • Conjugated Estrogens; Bazedoxifene
  • Conjugated Estrogens; Medroxyprogesterone
  • Corticosteroids
  • Cyclosporine
  • Daclatasvir
  • Danazol
  • Dapagliflozin; Metformin
  • Darunavir
  • Darunavir; Cobicistat
  • Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide
  • Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Demeclocycline
  • Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexmethylphenidate
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diazoxide
  • Dienogest; Estradiol valerate
  • Diethylpropion
  • Diethylstilbestrol, DES
  • Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Disopyramide
  • Dobutamine
  • Dopamine
  • Dorzolamide; Timolol
  • Doxycycline
  • Drospirenone; Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate
  • Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate
  • Elbasvir; Grazoprevir
  • Elexacaftor; tezacaftor; ivacaftor
  • Elvitegravir
  • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide
  • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
  • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Empagliflozin; Metformin
  • Enalapril, Enalaprilat
  • Enalapril; Felodipine
  • Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Ephedrine
  • Epinephrine
  • Eprosartan
  • Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Eravacycline
  • Ertugliflozin; Metformin
  • Esmolol
  • Esterified Estrogens
  • Esterified Estrogens; Methyltestosterone
  • Estradiol
  • Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone
  • Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Estradiol; Progesterone
  • Estramustine
  • Estrogens
  • Estropipate
  • Ethanol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Desogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Ethynodiol Diacetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Ferrous bisglycinate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone; Ferrous fumarate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestimate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel
  • Ethotoin
  • Exenatide
  • Fenofibrate
  • Fenofibric Acid
  • Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Fluconazole
  • Fluocinolone; Hydroquinone; Tretinoin
  • Fluoxetine
  • Fluoxetine; Olanzapine
  • Fluoxymesterone
  • Fosamprenavir
  • Fosinopril
  • Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Furosemide
  • Garlic, Allium sativum
  • Gemfibrozil
  • Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir
  • Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone
  • Glipizide; Metformin
  • Glyburide; Metformin
  • Green Tea
  • Griseofulvin
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Halobetasol; Tazarotene
  • Hydantoins
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Triamterene
  • Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan
  • Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Iloperidone
  • Indapamide
  • Indinavir
  • Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide
  • Irbesartan
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Isoproterenol
  • Itraconazole
  • Ivacaftor
  • Ketoconazole
  • Labetalol
  • Lanreotide
  • Ledipasvir; Sofosbuvir
  • Levobetaxolol
  • Levobunolol
  • Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Linezolid
  • Lisdexamfetamine
  • Lisinopril
  • Lithium
  • Lixisenatide
  • Lomefloxacin
  • Lopinavir; Ritonavir
  • Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Lorcaserin
  • Losartan
  • Lovastatin; Niacin
  • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Lumateperone
  • Lurasidone
  • Magnesium Hydroxide
  • Magnesium Salicylate
  • Mecasermin rinfabate
  • Mecasermin, Recombinant, rh-IGF-1
  • Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin
  • Mequinol; Tretinoin
  • Mestranol; Norethindrone
  • Metformin
  • Metformin; Pioglitazone
  • Metformin; Repaglinide
  • Metformin; Rosiglitazone
  • Metformin; Saxagliptin
  • Metformin; Sitagliptin
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methotrexate
  • Methoxsalen
  • Methylphenidate
  • Methyltestosterone
  • Metoprolol
  • Metreleptin
  • Metyrapone
  • Miconazole
  • Midodrine
  • Minocycline
  • Moexipril
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Nadolol
  • Nandrolone Decanoate
  • Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Nebivolol
  • Nebivolol; Valsartan
  • Nelfinavir
  • Niacin, Niacinamide
  • Niacin; Simvastatin
  • Nicotine
  • Nitazoxanide
  • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
  • Norepinephrine
  • Octreotide
  • Olanzapine
  • Olmesartan
  • Omadacycline
  • Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
  • Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Oritavancin
  • Orlistat
  • Oxandrolone
  • Oxymetholone
  • Paliperidone
  • Pasireotide
  • Pegvisomant
  • Pemoline
  • Penbutolol
  • Pentamidine
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Perindopril
  • Perindopril; Amlodipine
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phenelzine
  • Phenothiazines
  • Phentermine
  • Phentermine; Topiramate
  • Phenylephrine
  • Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Phenytoin
  • Photosensitizing agents (topical)
  • Pindolol
  • Porfimer
  • Posaconazole
  • Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (Dietary Supplements)
  • Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (FDA-approved)
  • Prilocaine; Epinephrine
  • Probenecid
  • Progestins
  • Propoxyphene
  • Propranolol
  • Protease inhibitors
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Quetiapine
  • Quinapril
  • Quinolones
  • Racepinephrine
  • Ramipril
  • Ranitidine
  • Reserpine
  • Rifamycins
  • Risperidone
  • Ritodrine
  • Ritonavir
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Sacubitril; Valsartan
  • Salsalate
  • Saquinavir
  • Sarecycline
  • Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Selegiline
  • Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Sofosbuvir
  • Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir
  • Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir
  • Somatropin, rh-GH
  • Sotalol
  • Sparfloxacin
  • Sulfacetamide
  • Sulfacetamide; Sulfur
  • Sulfinpyrazone
  • Sulfonamides
  • Sympathomimetics
  • Tacrolimus
  • Tazarotene
  • Tegaserod
  • Telmisartan
  • Testolactone
  • Testosterone
  • Tetracycline
  • Tetracyclines
  • Tezacaftor; Ivacaftor
  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Thyroid hormones
  • Timolol
  • Tipranavir
  • tobacco
  • Torsemide
  • Trandolapril
  • Trandolapril; Verapamil
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Tretinoin, ATRA
  • Triamterene
  • Trovafloxacin, Alatrofloxacin
  • Valsartan
  • Vemurafenib
  • Verteporfin
  • Voriconazole
  • Warfarin
  • Ziprasidone