Cefazolin

Cefazolin Brand Names

Ancef | Kefzol

What is Cefazolin

Cefazolin is a parenteral first-generation cephalosporin with greater activity against gram-positive bacteria than most other cephalosporins.

Similar to other first-generation cephalosporins, cefazolin is active against gram-positive aerobic cocci, but has limited activity against gram-negative bacteria.

Cefazolin has a longer half-life than other first-generation cephalosporins and, since fewer daily doses are required, is less expensive to use.

Advantages of cefazolin over other first-generation cephalosporins include higher blood levels after IM/IV administration, greater gram-positive coverage, and less frequent dosing.

Cefazolin was approved by the FDA in 1973.

Indications

  1. bacteremia
  2. biliary tract infections
  3. bone and joint infections
  4. community-acquired pneumonia
  5. endocarditis
  6. endocarditis prophylaxis
  7. epididymitis
  8. Escherichia coli
  9. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative)
  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae
  11. lower respiratory tract infections
  12. mastitis
  13. neonatal mastitis
  14. perinatal Group B streptococcal infection prophylaxis
  15. peritonitis
  16. pneumonia
  17. prostatitis
  18. Proteus mirabilis
  19. Shigella sp.
  20. skin and skin structure infections
  21. Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)
  22. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  23. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci)
  24. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  25. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)
  26. Streptococcus sp.
  27. surgical infection prophylaxis
  28. upper respiratory tract infections
  29. urinary tract infection (UTI)

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)
  3. agranulocytosis
  4. anaphylactic shock
  5. anaphylactoid reactions
  6. angioedema
  7. anorexia
  8. aplastic anemia
  9. azotemia
  10. bleeding
  11. candidiasis
  12. cholestasis
  13. colitis
  14. confusion
  15. diarrhea
  16. dizziness
  17. drowsiness
  18. elevated hepatic enzymes
  19. eosinophilia
  20. erythema multiforme
  21. fever
  22. flatulence
  23. headache
  24. hemolytic anemia
  25. hepatitis
  26. hypertonia
  27. hypoprothrombinemia
  28. hypotension
  29. injection site reaction
  30. interstitial nephritis
  31. leukopenia
  32. maculopapular rash
  33. nausea
  34. neutropenia
  35. oral ulceration
  36. pancytopenia
  37. phlebitis
  38. pruritus
  39. pruritus ani
  40. pseudomembranous colitis
  41. pyrosis (heartburn)
  42. rash
  43. renal failure (unspecified)
  44. seizures
  45. serum sickness
  46. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  47. superinfection
  48. thrombocytopenia
  49. thrombocytosis
  50. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  51. urticaria
  52. vaginitis
  53. vomiting
  54. weakness

Monitoring Parameters

  • serum creatinine/BUN

Contraindications

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • breast-feeding
  • cephalosporin hypersensitivity
  • coagulopathy
  • colitis
  • diarrhea
  • geriatric
  • GI disease
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • neonates
  • penicillin hypersensitivity
  • pregnancy
  • pseudomembranous colitis
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • ulcerative colitis
  • viral infection
  • vitamin K deficiency

Interactions

  • Clofarabine
  • Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin
  • Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin
  • Loop diuretics
  • Oral Contraceptives
  • Rifampin
  • Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid
  • Warfarin
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