When does the newborn need assistance with ventilation

When does the newly born infant need assistance with ventilation? 

Approximately 10% of newly born infants require some form of assistance to begin breathing at birth, and 1% require extensive resuscitation measures. After the infant has been quickly assessed and found to have apnea or gasping respirations, initiate positive-pressure ventilation with air. Also initiate positive-pressure ventilation if the heart rate is less than 100 beats per minute, because bradycardia in a newborn is usually due to hypoxia. 

Sources

Kattwinkel J, Perlman JM, Aziz K, et al: Part 15: Neonatal resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S909-S919.

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