What temperatures must be achieved to be cytotoxic for tumor destruction?
Irreversible damage with cellular protein denaturation, cell membrane dysfunction, and coagulation necrosis occurs at temperatures between 60 ° C and 100 ° C.
Above 100 ° C to 110 ° C, tissue carbonization and charring occurs which results in diminished volume of the ablation zone from less effective energy transmission.
In cryotherapy, irreversible damage from cellular dehydration, membrane rupture, and ischemic microvascular thrombosis occurs at temperatures between −20 ° C and −40 ° C.
For adequate tumor destruction, the entire target volume must be subject to cytotoxic temperatures and thus the zone of ablation must be larger than the size of the tumor itself to achieve tumor-free margins.