What physical findings help to identify the approximate level of common lumbar nerve root lesions

What physical findings help to identify the approximate level of common lumbar nerve root lesions?

NerveSensory LossMotor WeaknessReflex
L4 (5%)Anterior leg, medial footTibialis anterior (ankle dorsiflexion)Patellar
L5 (67%)Lateral leg, web of great toeExtensor hallucis longus (great toe extension)None
S1 (28%)Posterior leg, lateral footPeroneus muscles (foot eversion)Achilles

Pearl: Note that 95% of nerve root impingement due to herniated disc disease affects the L5 or S1 nerve roots.

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