What factors predispose an individual to develop septic arthritis

What factors predispose an individual to develop septic arthritis?

• Impaired host defense (50%)

• Neoplastic disease

• Elderly (>80 years old) or children (<5 years old)

• Chronic, severe illness (i.e., alcoholism, diabetes, cirrhosis, chronic renal disease, and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV])

• Cutaneous ulcers and skin infections

• Sickle cell disease (susceptible to encapsulated organisms due to functional hyposplenia)

• Hypogammaglobulinemia (susceptible to Mycoplasma infections)

• Immunosuppressive agents (i.e., glucocorticoids, chemotherapy, biologics)

• Direct penetration

Intravenous (IV) drug abuse; puncture wounds; invasive procedures (intraarticular corticosteroid injections)

• Joint damage

Prosthetic joints (over 50% occur in patients aged over 70 years)

Chronic arthritis (i.e., RA, hemarthrosis, osteoarthritis)

• Host phagocytic defects

Late complement–component deficiencies (susceptible to Neisseria ); impaired chemotaxis

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