What conditions are associated with both renal stone disease and hypercalciuria?
Calcium stones account for 80% of all kidney stones. Approximately 40% to 50% of calcium stone formers have hypercalciuria. Of those with hypercalciuria, 40% have IH, 5% have primary hyperparathyroidism, and 3% have renal tubular acidosis. Other causes of hypercalciuria include excessive dietary vitamin D, excessive calcium and alkali intake, sarcoidosis, Cushing’s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, Paget’s disease of bone, and immobilization. Nephrolithiasis is also associated with infection, acute and chronic kidney injury, coronary artery disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome.