What are some of the other adverse effects that may be encountered in children who receive cranial XRT?
Transient somnolence, headaches, and anorexia 6 to 8 weeks after initiation of XRT are common.
Radiation necrosis (radionecrosis) may occur 1 to 3 years post-XRT and can mimic a mass effect, making it difficult to distinguish tumor recurrence from radionecrosis. Pathologically the lesion involves hyalinization of blood vessels with infarction and necrosis of brain tissue.
Hypothalamic–pituitary dysfunction, which usually involves decreased production of growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Formation of cataracts if the ocular globes were exposed to radiation.
Induction of a second malignancy that may appear years later.