Role of pancreatic hormones in the development of diabetes

Role of pancreatic hormones in the development of diabetes

Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells results in type 1 diabetes. These patients are deficient in both insulin and amylin. Peripheral insulin resistance (i.e., reduced insulin sensitivity) followed by beta cell failure is the predominate pathologic finding in type 2 diabetes. These patients have relative deficiency of both insulin and amylin. Both genetic and environmental factors (e.g., obesity) play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. 

Other types of diabetes include destruction of the pancreas (e.g., cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis), genetic disorders (e.g., maturity onset diabetes of the young, mitochondrial disorders) and medications (e.g., steroids). These disorders have varying effect on beta cell mass, beta cell function, or insulin action.

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