Respiratory tract manifestations of sarcoidosis
The entire respiratory tract from sinuses to lungs can be involved. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic hilar adenopathy (50%) to interstitial lung disease with alveolitis. Pleural effusions are rare (<5%). Pulmonary hypertension is increasingly recognized (up to 20%) and is likely a result of multiple contributing factors. Symptoms of pulmonary involvement include dry cough (30%), dyspnea (30%), and chest pain (15%). Pulmonary rales are heard in only 20%. Wheezing can occur when there is endobronchial involvement. Hemoptysis and clubbing are rare.