Physical characteristics of normal synovial fluid from the knee joint

What are the physical characteristics of normal synovial fluid from the knee joint?

Color—colorless and transparent.

Amount—thin film covering surfaces of synovium and cartilage within joint space.

Cell count—<200/mm with <25% neutrophils.

Protein—1.3 to 1.7 g/dL (33% of normal plasma protein).

Glucose—within 20 mg/dL of the serum glucose level after 6 hours of fasting.

Temperature—32°C (peripheral joints are cooler than core body temperature).

String sign (measure of viscosity)—1 to 2 inches (2.5–5 cm).

pH—7.4.

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