Indications for bariatric surgery? What are the types of procedures and potential complications.
Bariatric surgery is reserved for individuals with a BMI of more than 40 kg/m 2 or a BMI of more than 35 kg/m 2 and comorbid conditions. Weight loss of 50% to 70% is reported after surgery. There are three bariatric surgical techniques for weight loss:
- • restrictive (i.e., gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy)
- • malabsorptive (i.e., biliopancreatic diversion)
- • combination of restrictive and malabsorptive (i.e., Roux-en-Y)
Restrictive procedures result in gradual weight loss as a result of reduced stomach capacity. Malabsorptive procedures reduce the absorption of food and produce even greater weight loss. However, these patients are at risk for severe malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies (i.e., iron, folate, thiamine, B 12 , vitamin D).
Roux-en-y is the most common bariatric procedure. The procedure results in reduced stomach capacity and malabsorption of nutrients, as well as alterations in gut hormones that decrease appetite (i.e., ghrelin, peptide YY, GLP-1).