What are the important technical factors to consider when performing PCN?
PCN is a relatively safe, minimally invasive technique that can be used to treat various conditions efficiently. The safety and efficacy of the procedure are predicated, however, on the following well-established guidelines to help prevent complications. The skin puncture should be sufficiently lateral to the midline; this ensures a relatively straight tract that avoids kinking of the catheter. The needle entry into the kidney should traverse the least vascular plane, and the access obtained should provide a path to all portions of the collecting system. It is also important that organs adjacent to the kidney, such as the colon, are not in the needle path.