How can bursitis tendinitis tendinopathy and other regional musculoskeletal syndromes be treated?
• Identify, modify, and avoid the precipitating movements or actions: bursitis and tendinitis can frequently be caused by repetitive motions or movements (e.g., biceps tendinitis caused by carrying a heavy briefcase daily).
• Rest the affected area: however, intermittent range of motion needs to be maintained, or the joint capsule may contract or “freeze.”
• Antiinflammatory or analgesic medications: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) probably have a more important role than just analgesia.
• Splinting of the affected area (e.g., a forearm strap in lateral epicondylitis).
• Superficial heat and cold.
• Range of motion/flexibility and muscle strengthening exercises. Supervised physical therapy may be instrumental in ensuring proper patient education and adherence.
• Ambulatory aids (cane, crutches, or walker).
• Local corticosteroid injections may provide short-term relief but also may predispose to tendon rupture, especially in the Achilles tendon.
• Surgery (bursectomy, tenosynovectomy, reattachment of ruptured tendons).