Evaluation and management of neuroendocrine tumors
Hormone evaluation based on clinical presentation. Computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging can localize most tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (i.e., pancreatic tumors) and octreotide scan can be used to localize small tumors. Treatment often involves resection of primary tumor and initiation of somatostatin analogs (i.e., octreotide, lanreotide). Interferon alpha and chemotherapy can be considered in refractory patients. Liver involvement may require liver resection, hepatic artery embolization, and transplantation.