Etiology of gynecomastia

What is the etiology of gynecomastia?

There is a long differential diagnosis for gynecomastia. In infants and in teenagers, it is most commonly due to hormonal influences. Transplacental maternal hormones are responsible in infants. In teenagers, the hormonal fluctuations of adolescence are thought to be responsible. Other pathologic processes should be excluded, however. A few common etiologies for gynecomastia are marijuana use, certain types of medications, liver dysfunction, androgen deficiency, or any condition that causes an imbalance of estrogen relative to testosterone. Finally, hormone-secreting tumors should be excluded.

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