What is the difference between RDS and a surfactant dysfunction?
RDS is caused by an insufficient amount of surfactant. A surfactant dysfunction may be caused by a mutation in one of the surfactant proteins. Surfactant dysfunctions, such as from mutations in surfactant proteins B, C, or ABCA3, can have a variety of radiologic manifestations in the lungs, including diffuse ground glass opacities, cysts, crazy-paving, or even (as a late manifestation) fibrosis on computed tomography (CT). Surfactant dysfunction may also occur in the setting of meconium aspiration.