Common Causes of Rhabdomyolysis

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What are some of the common causes of rhabdomyolysis?

Rhabdomyolysis may be caused by a wide range of conditions. Trauma or direct muscle injury is the most common cause and should be considered in any patient who presents with multiple injuries/trauma.

Common Causes of Rhabdomyolysis

CAUSEEXAMPLES
Trauma related/crush injuryMotor vehicle accidents, falls, workplace accidents, earthquakes
Vascular occlusionThrombosis, embolism, vessel clamping during surgery, malfunctioning endovascular stents
Muscular strainExercise induced, seizures, delirium tremens
Toxins/drugsAlcohol, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, barbiturates, corticosteroids, colchicine, fibrates, isoniazid, zidovudine, amphetamines, ecstasy, opiates, cocaine, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
InfectionViral: Influenza, human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, legionella, polio, coxsackievirus
Bacterial: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, toxic shock syndrome
Electrolyte disordersHypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia
Inherited disorders of metabolismCarnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, phosphofructokinase deficiency, myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle), coenzyme Q10 deficiency, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency
AutoimmunePolymyositis, dermatomyositis
OthersHyperthermia, hypothermia, electrical injury

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