What are some of the common causes of rhabdomyolysis?
Rhabdomyolysis may be caused by a wide range of conditions. Trauma or direct muscle injury is the most common cause and should be considered in any patient who presents with multiple injuries/trauma.
Common Causes of Rhabdomyolysis
|Trauma related/crush injury||Motor vehicle accidents, falls, workplace accidents, earthquakes|
|Vascular occlusion||Thrombosis, embolism, vessel clamping during surgery, malfunctioning endovascular stents|
|Muscular strain||Exercise induced, seizures, delirium tremens|
|Toxins/drugs||Alcohol, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, barbiturates, corticosteroids, colchicine, fibrates, isoniazid, zidovudine, amphetamines, ecstasy, opiates, cocaine, neuroleptic malignant syndrome|
|Infection||Viral: Influenza, human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, legionella, polio, coxsackievirus|
Bacterial: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, toxic shock syndrome
|Electrolyte disorders||Hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia|
|Inherited disorders of metabolism||Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, phosphofructokinase deficiency, myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle), coenzyme Q10 deficiency, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency|
|Others||Hyperthermia, hypothermia, electrical injury|