What are some causes of incontinence?
There are many causes of incontinence, ranging from neurologic disorders to damage of the sphincters in the bladder neck or urethra by surgery or radiation therapy, to menopause resulting in stress incontinence. In a patient presenting with symptoms suggestive of incontinence, a thorough neurologic evaluation as well as a clinical evaluation with urodynamic studies is performed in a urologist’s office. Imaging plays a relatively minor role in the evaluation of such patients. If there are symptoms of stress incontinence, leakage of contrast material into the urethra from the bladder may be seen during fluoroscopic observation if the patient is asked to perform straining maneuvers such as a Valsalva maneuver or is asked to cough.