Nitazoxanide Brand Name– Alinia
What is Nitazoxanide
Nitazoxanide is an oral synthetic antiprotozoal agent for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis.
In the US, the most common causes of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, respectively.
Nitazoxanide is the first drug specifically approved for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. In current guidelines for managing infectious diarrhea, paromomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been the only agent used for treating cases of cryptosporidiosis, however, there is limited success with the use of this drug.
Nitazoxanide has also been effective in treating diarrhea due to other protozoa such as Giardia duodenalis, G. intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica.
In one comparative study, nitazoxanide was as effective as metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis due to Giardia intestinalis.
On October 15, 1996, the FDA approved an expanded open label compassionate use study of nitazoxanide in AIDS patients with cryptosporidiosis.
Orphan drug status for treatment of cryptosporidiosis was granted on December 12, 1996.
A phase II/III trial for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients began January 1997 (press release 1/22/97).
Further studies are required to determine the role of nitazoxanide in HIV-positive and immunodeficient patients. Nitazoxanide has also shown efficacy in treating Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; further clinical studies are planned in order to seek FDA approval for this condition.
Nitazoxanide oral suspension was approved for use in children on November 22, 2002 for infectious diarrhea.
The tablets, for use in adults and adolescents, were approved by the FDA in July 2004. Nitazoxanide has also been used for shortening the duration of diarrhea in children with rotavirus infection and is being evaluated for treating chronic hepatitis B and C.
- Clostridium difficile
- Cryptosporidium parvum
- Entamoeba dispar
- Entamoeba histolytica
- Enterocytozoon bieneusi
- Giardia lamblia
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication
- infectious diarrhea
- pseudomembranous colitis
- rotavirus infection
- abdominal pain
- appetite stimulation
- back pain
- bone fractures
- elevated hepatic enzymes
- gastroesophageal reflux
- iridal discoloration
- muscle cramps
- pelvic pain
- sinus tachycardia
- urine discoloration
- stool exam
- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
- biliary tract disease
- diabetes mellitus
- driving or operating machinery
- hepatic disease
- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
- laboratory test interference
- renal disease
- renal failure
- renal impairment
Nitazoxanide is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity to nitazoxanide or any component of the formulation.
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