Human Papillomavirus Bivalent Vaccine

Human Papillomavirus Bivalent Vaccine Brand Name– Cervarix

What is Human Papillomavirus Bivalent Vaccine

Human papillomavirus bivalent vaccine (Cervarix) is a recombinant vaccine indicated for the prevention of certain human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and the diseases associated with these infections.

The vaccine is only effective against the 2 HPV types contained within the vaccine, which include HPV types 16 and 18. The other two commercially available HPV vaccines are Gardasil quadrivalent and Gardasil 9.

Gardasil quadrivalent is active against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, and Gardasil 9 is effective against HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. HPV vaccines are only prophylactic and will not treat an active HPV infections.

Therefore, to offer the greatest protection, it is recommended to administer the vaccine prior to exposure (i.e., before onset of sexual activity).

Patients with previous exposure to HPV may still achieve benefit from the vaccine, however, no clear evidence of protection from disease caused by HPV types for which patients are PCR positive or seropositive at baseline exists.

The duration of protection has not been clearly defined; however, data indicate no loss of protection from HPV vaccines after 8—10 years.

Cervarix was FDA approved in October 2009 for the prevention of cervical precancers and cervical cancer associated with HPV types 16 and 18 in females 10—25 years of age.

In July 2011, approval was expanded to include females as young as 9 years old.

Indications

  • human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prophylaxis

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. anaphylactoid reactions
  3. angioedema
  4. arthralgia
  5. back pain
  6. diabetes mellitus
  7. diarrhea
  8. dizziness
  9. dysmenorrhea
  10. edema
  11. erythema
  12. erythema multiforme
  13. fatigue
  14. fever
  15. headache
  16. hyperthyroidism
  17. hypothyroidism
  18. infection
  19. influenza
  20. injection site reaction
  21. lupus-like symptoms
  22. lymphadenopathy
  23. myalgia
  24. myelitis
  25. nausea
  26. optic neuritis
  27. pharyngitis
  28. pruritus
  29. psoriasis
  30. rash
  31. syncope
  32. thrombocytopenia
  33. urticaria
  34. vasculitis
  35. vomiting

Monitoring Parameters

  • pap smear
  • pelvic exam

Contraindications

  • agammaglobulinemia
  • anticoagulant therapy
  • breast-feeding
  • children
  • coagulopathy
  • fever
  • geriatric
  • hemophilia
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • hypogammaglobulinemia
  • immunosuppression
  • infants
  • latex hypersensitivity
  • neonates
  • neoplastic disease
  • pregnancy
  • radiation therapy
  • severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
  • syncope
  • thrombocytopenia
  • vitamin K deficiency

Interactions

  • Ocrelizumab
  • Siponimod