Gemifloxacin

Gemifloxacin Brand Name– Factive

What is Gemifloxacin

Gemifloxacin is an oral fluoroquinolone anti-infective. It belongs to a group of quinolones known as fluoronapthyridones.

Gemifloxacin is active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and compared to other fluoroquinolones, it has improved activity against Gram-positive cocci.

Gemifloxacin also has enhanced activity against penicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions associated with quinolones include tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. Other significant adverse events include potential QT prolongation and myasthenia gravis exacerbation.

Gemifloxacin is FDA-approved for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis; however, due to the potential for serious adverse events, quinolones should only be used for bronchitis when alternative treatment options cannot be used.

Gemifloxacin was FDA-approved in April 2003.

Indications

  1. Acinetobacter lwoffii
  2. bronchitis
  3. Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  4. community-acquired pneumonia
  5. gonorrhea
  6. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative)
  7. Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive)
  8. Haemophilus parainfluenzae
  9. Klebsiella oxytoca
  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae
  11. Legionella pneumophila
  12. Moraxella catarrhalis
  13. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  14. Proteus vulgaris
  15. Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)
  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  17. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci)

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  3. agitation
  4. agranulocytosis
  5. anaphylactoid reactions
  6. anemia
  7. angioedema
  8. anorexia
  9. anxiety
  10. aortic dissection
  11. aplastic anemia
  12. arthralgia
  13. asthenia
  14. azotemia
  15. back pain
  16. bleeding
  17. bronchospasm
  18. candidiasis
  19. coma
  20. confusion
  21. constipation
  22. crystalluria
  23. delirium
  24. depression
  25. diarrhea
  26. dizziness
  27. drowsiness
  28. dysesthesia
  29. dysgeusia
  30. dyspepsia
  31. dyspnea
  32. eczema vaccinatum
  33. edema
  34. elevated hepatic enzymes
  35. eosinophilia
  36. erythema
  37. erythema multiforme
  38. exfoliative dermatitis
  39. fatigue
  40. fever
  41. flatulence
  42. flushing
  43. gastritis
  44. hallucinations
  45. headache
  46. hemolytic anemia
  47. hepatic failure
  48. hepatic necrosis
  49. hepatitis
  50. hot flashes
  51. hyperbilirubinemia
  52. hypercalcemia
  53. hyperglycemia
  54. hyperkalemia
  55. hypernatremia
  56. hypoalbuminemia
  57. hypocalcemia
  58. hypoesthesia
  59. hypoglycemia
  60. hypokalemia
  61. hyponatremia
  62. hypotension
  63. increased intracranial pressure
  64. infection
  65. insomnia
  66. interstitial nephritis
  67. jaundice
  68. laryngeal edema
  69. leukopenia
  70. maculopapular rash
  71. memory impairment
  72. muscle cramps
  73. myalgia
  74. myasthenia gravis
  75. nausea
  76. neurotoxicity
  77. nightmares
  78. pancytopenia
  79. paranoia
  80. paresthesias
  81. peripheral edema
  82. peripheral neuropathy
  83. pharyngitis
  84. photosensitivity
  85. pneumonitis
  86. pruritus
  87. pseudomembranous colitis
  88. pseudotumor cerebri
  89. psychosis
  90. QT prolongation
  91. rash
  92. renal failure (unspecified)
  93. restlessness
  94. retinal hemorrhage
  95. seizures
  96. serum sickness
  97. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  98. suicidal ideation
  99. superinfection
  100. supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)
  101. syncope
  102. tendinitis
  103. tendon rupture
  104. thrombocytopenia
  105. thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
  106. torsade de pointes
  107. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  108. tremor
  109. urticaria
  110. vaginitis
  111. vasculitis
  112. vertigo
  113. visual impairment
  114. vomiting
  115. weakness
  116. xerostomia

Monitoring Parameters

  • LFTs
  • serum creatinine/BUN

Contraindications

  • aneurysm
  • aortic dissection
  • apheresis
  • arteriosclerosis
  • atrial fibrillation
  • AV block
  • bradycardia
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiomyopathy
  • celiac disease
  • cerebrovascular disease
  • children
  • colitis
  • corticosteroid therapy
  • dehydration
  • diabetes mellitus
  • dialysis
  • diarrhea
  • driving or operating machinery
  • females
  • fever
  • geriatric
  • GI disease
  • heart failure
  • hepatic disease
  • hepatitis
  • hepatotoxicity
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • hypertension
  • hypocalcemia
  • hypokalemia
  • hypomagnesemia
  • hypothermia
  • hypothyroidism
  • infants
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • jaundice
  • long QT syndrome
  • myasthenia gravis
  • myocardial infarction
  • neonates
  • neurotoxicity
  • organ transplant
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • pheochromocytoma
  • pregnancy
  • pseudomembranous colitis
  • psychiatric event
  • QT prolongation
  • quinolone hypersensitivity
  • renal disease
  • renal failure
  • renal impairment
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • seizure disorder
  • sexually transmitted disease
  • sickle cell disease
  • sleep deprivation
  • stroke
  • sunlight (UV) exposure
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • tendinitis
  • tendinopathy
  • tendon pain
  • tendon rupture
  • torsade de pointes
  • ulcerative colitis
  • viral infection

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