Chlorhexidine Brand Names
Betasept | Chlorostat | Hibiclens | Oro Clense | Peridex | PerioChip | Periogard | PerioRx | Perisol
What is Chlorhexidine
Chlorhexidine gluconate is a topical antimicrobial agent.
It is used as an oral rinse for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis and topically as a surgical scrub, health-care personnel hand wash, patient preoperative skin preparation, skin wound cleanser, general skin cleanser and for the treatment of acne vulgaris.
It is also available as a 2% cloth and as a swab with 3.15% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% isopropyl alcohol; both are indicated for use as a preoperative skin preparation.
Other uses of chlorhexidine include prophylaxis and treatment of mouth infections, treatment of denture stomatitis, ulcerative stomatitis, and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG).
Chlorhexidine oral rinse is commonly used to prevent and treat mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy.
Chlorhexidine is also incorporated into several types of medical devices including intravenous catheters, topical antimicrobial skin dressings and implantable dental chips and surgical mesh.
Chlorhexidine dental implant is indicated as an adjunct to scaling and root planing procedures in adults with periodontitis.
Chlorhexidine’s bacterial spectrum includes both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, some viruses including HIV, and fungi; but is sporicidal only at elevated temperatures.
In several studies, chlorhexidine has shown a greater decrease in initial bacterial counts of hands and a greater reduction in residual bacterial flora with continued use when compared to povidone-iodine 0.75%, hexachlorophene 3% emulsion, iodophor and alcohol containing foam.
Chlorhexidine is an ideal topical antiseptic due to its persistent activity on the skin with continued use, rapid and broad bactericidal activity, and minimal absorption, although severe allergic reactions have been associated with the topical antiseptics and medical devices containing chlorhexidine.
- acne vulgaris
- Bacteroides forsythus
- Campylobacter rectus
- denture stomatitis
- Porphyromonas gingivalis
- Prevotella intermedia
- Propionibacterium acnes
- skin antisepsis
- anaphylactic shock
- anaphylactoid reactions
- back pain
- calculus (tartar) formation
- dental pain
- gingival hyperplasia
- metallic taste
- oral ulceration
- skin irritation
- tooth discoloration
- laboratory monitoring not necessary
- dental work
- lumbar puncture
- occlusive dressing
- ocular exposure
- periodontal disease
- serious hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis
- skin disease
- tobacco smoking
- tympanic membrane perforation
Disulfiram: (Minor) Some chlorhexidine oral rinses contain ethanol in significant percentages.
Although chlorhexidine is poorly absorbed from the GI tract and the products are intended for oral topical rinse and not for systemic ingestion, there is a potential for interaction with disulfiram when such products are swallowed.