Abacavir

Abacavir Brand Name

Ziagen

What is Abacavir

Abacavir is an oral, synthetic guanosine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), indicated for use in combination with other antiretroviral medications to treat HIV.

Abacavir is associated with a hypersensitivity reaction that occurs in approximately 5% to 10% of patients.

This hypersensitivity reaction, characterized by fever, skin rash, fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, and, sometimes, respiratory symptoms, can be life-threatening; when a hypersensitivity reaction cannot be ruled out, abacavir treatment is permanently discontinued and rechallenge is contraindicated.

Indications

  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prophylaxis

NOTE: HIV guidelines recommend screening for HLA-B*5701 before initiating an abacavir-containing regimen to reduce the risk of hypersensitivity reaction. HLA-B*5701-positive patients should not be prescribed abacavir.

NOTE: HIV guidelines recommend consideration be given to avoiding the use of abacavir-containing regimens in patients at high risk for cardiovascular adverse events. Although a definitive correlation has not been established, recent (within 6 months) or current use of abacavir has been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction.

Side Effects

  1. abdominal pain
  2. acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  3. anemia
  4. anxiety
  5. arthralgia
  6. azotemia
  7. chills
  8. conjunctivitis
  9. cough
  10. depression
  11. diarrhea
  12. diarrhea
  13. dizziness
  14. dyspnea
  15. edema
  16. elevated hepatic enzymes
  17. erythema multiforme
  18. fatigue
  19. fever
  20. gastritis
  21. headache
  22. hepatic failure
  23. hepatomegaly
  24. hepatotoxicity
  25. hyperamylasemia
  26. hyperglycemia
  27. hypertriglyceridemia
  28. hypotension
  29. infection
  30. insomnia
  31. lactic acidosis
  32. lethargy
  33. leukopenia
  34. lipodystrophy
  35. lymphadenopathy
  36. lymphopenia
  37. maculopapular rash
  38. malaise
  39. migraine
  40. musculoskeletal pain
  41. myalgia
  42. myocardial infarction
  43. nausea
  44. neutropenia
  45. nightmares
  46. oral ulceration
  47. pancreatitis
  48. paresthesias
  49. pharyngitis
  50. rash
  51. renal failure (unspecified)
  52. respiratory arrest
  53. rhabdomyolysis
  54. serious hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis
  55. steatosis
  56. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  57. thrombocytopenia
  58. toxic epidermal necrolysis
  59. urticaria
  60. vomiting

Monitoring Parameters

  • blood glucose
  • CBC with differential
  • CD4+ T cell count
  • hepatitis B serology
  • LFTs
  • plasma hepatitis C RNA
  • plasma HIV RNA
  • pregnancy testing
  • serum bilirubin (total and direct)
  • serum cholesterol
  • serum lipid profile
  • urinalysis

Contraindications

  • abacavir hypersensitivity
  • alcoholism
  • autoimmune disease
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiac disease
  • females
  • geriatric
  • Graves’ disease
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • hepatic disease
  • hepatitis B and HIV coinfection
  • hepatitis C and HIV coinfection
  • hepatotoxicity or lactic acidosis
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection resistance
  • immune reconstitution syndrome
  • infants
  • myocardial infarction
  • neonates
  • obesity
  • pregnancy
  • serious hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis

Interactions

  • Adefovir
  • Cabozantinib
  • Echinacea
  • Ethanol
  • food
  • Interferon Alfa-2a
  • Interferon Alfa-2b
  • Interferon Alfa-2b; Ribavirin
  • Interferon Alfa-n3
  • Interferon Alfacon-1
  • Interferon Beta-1a
  • Interferon Beta-1b
  • Interferon Gamma-1b
  • Interferons
  • Methadone
  • Orlistat
  • Peginterferon Alfa-2a
  • Peginterferon Alfa-2b
  • Peginterferon beta-1a
  • Ribavirin
  • Tipranavir
15585

Sign up to receive the trending updates and tons of Health Tips

Join SeekhealthZ and never miss the latest health information

15856
Scroll to Top