Mathes and Nahai classification of muscle circulation and list examples of muscles used for free transfers from each group
• Type I: One vascular pedicle
• Type II: One dominant pedicle and minor pedicles
• Type III: Two dominant pedicles
• Type IV: Segmental vascular pedicles
• Type V: One dominant and secondary vascular pedicles
• Tensor fascia latae is perfused solely by the transverse branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery.
• The extensor digitorum brevis is perfused by a branch of the dorsalis pedis artery.
• The gracilis muscle is perfused by a major pedicle that is a terminal branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery. One to two minor pedicles from the superficial femoral artery enter the muscle distally.
• The soleus muscle is perfused by branches directly from the popliteal vessels. The distal 4 to 5 cm of muscle is perfused by segmental perforating vessels from the posterior tibial artery.
• The rectus abdominis is perfused by two dominant pedicles, the superior arising from the superior epigastric artery and the inferior arising from the deep inferior epigastric artery.
• The serratus anterior is perfused by the lateral thoracic artery superiorly and the thoracodorsal artery inferiorly.
• No type IV muscles are appropriate for free transfers.
• The latissimus dorsi is perfused predominantly by the thoracodorsal artery. The muscle also receives a segmental blood supply medially by branches of the intercostal and lumbar arteries.
• The pectoralis major receives its major blood supply from the thoracoacromial artery. It is also perfused by the lateral thoracic artery, the internal mammary artery, and the intercostal artery.
• The pectoralis minor is predominantly perfused by the lateral thoracic artery. A direct branch of the axillary artery and the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery provide secondary vascularization.