Who is at risk for the development of kidney stones?
Kidney stones affect 12% of the world’s population. The average prevalence of kidney stones in the United States has increased and is approximately 11% in men and 7% in women, with an overall prevalence of 9%. The lifetime risk for kidney stones is 19% in men and 9% in women. The yearly cost of kidney stone disease in the United States is $2.5 to $5.5 billion. Fifty percent of patients with kidney stones have a recurrence within 5 to 10 years. Stones occur most often between 30 and 60 years of age, and occur in Caucasians more than in other ethnicities. Women have had more stones in recent years, possibly related to increased age, fast food consumption (high in protein and salt), increased calories, decreased physical activity, and increased obesity. The Women’s Health Initiative data suggest that estrogen hormone replacement therapy increases the risk of nephrolithiasis in healthy postmenopausal women. Risks for stones include a family history of stones, obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, medullary sponge kidney, renal tubular acidosis, urine volume < 2 L/day, dietary calcium < 1000 mg/day, dietary sodium > 2 g/day, low water intake, high animal protein, and high intake of sugar-sweetened sodas