What are some ways in which trauma can cause shock?
Posttraumatic hemorrhage is the most common way that trauma causes shock. Because young children have abdominal wall muscles that are poorly developed, they are at risk for liver and spleen injury after blunt abdominal trauma.
In addition to hemorrhagic shock, blunt chest trauma can result in a tension pneumothorax. Tension pneumothorax causes increased intrathoracic pressure, which in turn reduces venous return to the heart and causes shock. Similarly, blunt chest trauma can result in pericardial tamponade (essentially a form of restrictive cardiomyopathy).
Finally, cervical spine injury can result in neurogenic shock.