What are the major complications of iodinated contrast material when used as an oral contrast agent?
Aspiration of high-osmolality iodinated oral contrast material can lead to life-threatening pulmonary edema. As such, in patients at high risk for aspiration, this can be mitigated or prevented by use of low or iso-osmolal iodinated oral contrast material or by use of barium sulfate enteric contrast material.
Approximately 1% to 2% of iodinated enteric contrast material is absorbed and subsequently excreted into the urinary tract. Adverse reactions to iodinated enteric contrast material are rare but can be moderate or severe, particularly in patients with a history of prior reaction to intravascular contrast material, as well as in those with active inflammatory bowel disease, where there may be increased enteric absorption of contrast material.