What is the lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenbergs Syndrome)?
Lateral medullary syndrome is often due to vertebral artery or posterior inferior cerebellar artery occlusion.
Vertebral artery dissection can also be a cause. Damage to the dorsolateral medulla and the inferior cerebellar peduncle results in the following signs:
- Ipsilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation of the face (damage to descending spinal tract and nucleus of cranial nerve V)
- Ipsilateral paralysis of palate, pharynx, and vocal cord (damage to nuclei or fibers of IX and X) with dysphagia and dysarthria
- Ipsilateral Horner’s syndrome (damage to descending sympathetic fibers)
- Ipsilateral ataxia and dysmetria (damage to inferior cerebellar peduncle and cerebellum)
- Contralateral loss of pain and temperature on the body (damage to spinothalamic tract)
- Vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and nystagmus (damage to vestibular nuclei)
- Other signs and symptoms may include hiccups, diplopia, or unilateral posterior headache.