Are chemotherapy regimens effective in the treatment of carcinoid tumors?
Cytotoxic chemotherapy has yielded disappointing results in patients with carcinoid syndrome. Etoposide–cisplatin combination therapy is the most commonly used regimen for poorly differentiated carcinoid tumors. Everolimus, an antagonist of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R) antagonists, such as vatalanib, sunitinib, sorafenib, and bevazuzimab, are also under investigation. Other agents that have shown limited benefit include streptozotocin, 5-fluorouracil, lomustine, doxorubicin, and dacarbazine.
What other treatments may be effective for palliation or prolongation of survival in patients with carcinoid syndrome?
Hepatic resection is an option in patients with focal liver metastases. Other approaches include hepatic artery embolization, chemoembolization, 90-Y microsphere radioembolization, and peptide receptor radioligand therapy.