Human Milk based Products

When mother’s own milk is insufficient or not available, individuals may choose to use donor human milk.

In the absence of the infant’s own mother’s milk, donor milk offers many of the benefits of human milk for the infant, including: optimal nutrition (for term infants; human milk fortification is needed for preterm infants), easy digestibility, and immunologic protection against many organisms and diseases.

Donor human milk also contains growth factors that can protect immature tissue, promote maturation, and promote healing of tissue damaged by infection, etc.

A donor milk bank is a service established for the purpose of collecting, screening, processing, and distributing donated human milk to meet the specific nutritional needs of infants.

A milk bank follows guidelines drafted in consultation with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Various organizations, such as Human Milk Banking Association of North America, Prolacta Bioscience, Medolac, etc., use evidence-based methods for handling and processing of donor milk.

Mothers who donate their milk are screened for diseases and viruses that are transmissible through human milk and may need to meet specific guidelines for donating to specific organizations.

Donated milk from several mothers is pooled and then heat-treated to ensure elimination of any bacteria or viruses while retaining the majority of the milk’s beneficial components.

Milk samples are taken during the pasteurization or sterilization process and cultured to check for bacterial growth. Contaminated milk is discarded.

Human milk is the preferred source of enteral nutrition for all infants, including preterm infants, and is generally well tolerated.

In addition to its nutritional value, human milk contributes to primary and secondary prevention of many acute and chronic diseases by containing immunologic (immune and non-immune protection against pathogens) and antimicrobial components, hormones, and enzymes that contribute positively to the infant’s health and development; it also offers easy digestibility, rapid gastric emptying, and nutrients with optimal bioavailability.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding for at least the first year and beyond as long as desired by mother and child.

Breastfeeding is also supported by the U.S. Surgeon General and Healthy People 2020 objectives, which include increasing the proportion of mothers who breastfeed their babies.

Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as feeding the infant only breast milk, with no supplemental liquids or solids except for liquid medicine and vitamin/mineral supplements.

Although mother’s milk is the preferred source for infant feeding and nutrition, donor milk, commercial human milk-based products, and standard infant formulas (which mimic the composition of human milk) are available for situations where breastfeeding isn’t possible or preferred

Indications

  • complete nutrition

General nutritional information:

  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding for at least the first year and beyond as long as desired by mother and child.
  • The AAP recommends that all preterm infants receive human milk.
  • Although mother’s breast milk is the preferred source for infant feeding and nutrition, donated breast milk, milk from a human-milk bank, or standard infant formulas (which mimic the composition of human milk) are available for situations in which breastfeeding is not possible or preferred.
  • General daily caloric requirements are approximately 110—130 kcal/kg for neonates, 85—105 kcal/kg for infants < 6 months and 80—100 kcal/kg for infants 6—12 months; however, specific patient circumstances will dictate individual requirements.

Side Effects

Because human milk is not sterile, microbial contamination and possible infection may occur with improper preparation, storage, and administration, particularly in premature neonates or immunocompromised patients. When using human milk, recommendations for aseptic techniques, preparation and storage, feeding, and hang times should be strictly adhered to.

Monitoring Parameters

  • serum electrolytes
  • weight

Contraindications

  • breast-feeding
  • cardiac disease
  • dehydration
  • galactosemia
  • intravenous administration
  • jaundice
  • milk protein hypersensitivity
  • phenylketonuria
  • pregnancy
  • renal impairment

Interactions

No information is available regarding drug interactions associated with Human Milk –