How is myoclonus classified

How is myoclonus classified? 

Myoclonus may be classified by etiology, pathophysiology, and distribution

Classification of Myoclonus

Physiologic Myoclonus
Anxiety
Benign infantile myoclonus with feeding
Exercise
Hiccup
Nocturnal myoclonus
Essential Myoclonus
Autosomal dominant
Sporadic
Epileptic Myoclonus
Benign familial myoclonic epilepsy
Childhood myoclonic epilepsies
Infantile myoclonic encephalopathy
Cryptogenic myoclonus epilepsy
Infantile spasms
Juvenile myoclonus epilepsy
Myoclonic astatic epilepsy
Epilepsia partialis continua
Myoclonic absences in petit mal
Photosensitive myoclonus
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy
Symptomatic Myoclonus
Corticobasal degeneration
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation
Huntington’s disease
Myoclonic dystonia
Parkinson’s disease
Progressive supranuclear palsy
Dementias
Alzheimer’s disease
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease
Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome
Focal lesions
Dentato-olivary lesions
Stroke
Thalamotomy
Trauma (central nervous system or peripheral nervous system)
Tumor
Metabolic and toxic encephalopathies
Biotin deficiency
Bismuth
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Drugs, including levodopa
Dialysis syndrome
Heavy metal poisoning
Hepatic failure
Hypoglycemia
Hyponatremia
Methyl bromide
Mitochondrial encephalopathy
Multiple carboxylase deficiency
Nonketotic hyperglycemia
Physical encephalopathies
Decompression injury
Electric shock
Heat stroke
Post hypoxia
Spinocerebellar degeneration
Storage disease
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Lafora body disease
GM1-gangliosidosis
GM2-gangliosidosis
Krabbe’s disease
Tay–Sachs disease
Viral encephalopathies
Arbor virus encephalitis
Herpes simplex encephalitis
Postinfectious encephalitis
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Pathophysiology
Clinical Presentation
Spontaneous
Action
Reflex
Distribution
Focal
Segmental
Multifocal
Axial
Generalized
Neurophysiologic origin
Cortical
Subcortical
Brain stem
Hyperekplexia
Brain stem reticular myoclonus
Palatal myoclonus
Spinal
Propriospinal
Etiology
Physiologic
Essential
Symptomatic

Sources

  • Jankovic J, Clarence-Smith K: Tetrabenazine for the treatment of chorea and other hyperkinetic movement disorders. Expert Rev Neurother 11:1509-1523, 2011. 
  • Waln O, Jankovic J: An update on tardive dyskinesia: from phenomenology to treatment. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 3, 2013. 
  • Baizabal-Carvallo JF, Jankovic J: The clinical features of psychogenic movement disorders resembling tics. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85(5):573-575, 2014. 
  • Kojovic M, Cordivari C, Bhatia K: Myoclonic disorders: a practical approach for diagnosis and treatment. Ther Adv Neurol Disord 4(1):47-62, 2011. 
  • Baizabal-Carvallo JF, Cardoso F, Jankovic J: Myorhythmia: phenomenology, etiology, and treatment. Mov Disord 30(2):171-179, 2015.
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