How is HBV infection transmitted
HBV is estimated to affect approximately 350 million people worldwide and is transmitted parenterally through sexual contact or vertically (during childbirth). Most adults exposed to this virus experience a clinically silent, self-limited infection resulting in an antibody response to HBsAg. If the patient is immunocompetent, IgM antibodies against HBcAg indicate an acute HBV infection. The acute infection resolves in 90% to 95% of cases and is serologically indicated by absence of HBsAg, HBeAg, and viral DNA and the development of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb). In approximately 5% to 10% of cases, HBV infection proceeds to a chronic illness.