What is the FODMAP diet?
FODMAPs are fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine.
A diet high in FODMAPs has been associated with higher levels of hydrogen produced in the breath in both IBS patients and healthy individuals as well as GI symptoms and lethargy in IBS patients, but not in healthy individuals.
Conversely, a diet low in FODMAPs has been associated with lower levels of hydrogen production in both IBS patients and healthy individuals as well as a reduction in bloating, abdominal pain, flatulence, and overall symptoms in IBS patients as compared with a normal diet.
It is likely that a low FODMAP diet reduces the fermentation of these carbohydrates and subsequent hydrogen production, therefore reducing IBS symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, and flatulence.
The FODMAP diet
|High FODMAP foods||Low FODMAP foods|
|High-fructose containing fruit|
Apples, pears, watermelon
|Low-fructose containing fruit|
Bananas, grapes, strawberries
|Fructan containing vegetables|
Onions, asparagus, artichokes
|Low-fructan containing vegetables|
Spinach, carrots, eggplant
|High-galactan containing foods|
Legumes, lentils, soy
|Low-galactan containing foods|
Bread, pasta, cereals
Oats, quinoa, corn
|Sorbitol containing foods||Sucrose, glucose, pure maple syrup|
|Lactose containing foods|
Milk, ice cream, soft and fresh cheeses
|Lactose free foods|
Lactose-free milk, rice milk, hard cheese
FODMAP , Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols.