Cross sectional imaging features of GI tract carcinoid tumor

What are the cross sectional imaging features of GI tract carcinoid tumor?

Carcinoid tumor is a well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm with malignant potential that most commonly occurs in the small bowel (40%) (most often in the distal ileum), followed by rectum (27%), appendix (24%), and stomach (9%). The biologic behavior of carcinoid tumor varies with the site of origin. For example, small bowel carcinoid tumors often have an aggressive biologic behavior whereas appendiceal and rectal carcinoids tend to have a more indolent biologic behavior.

One or more smooth small (<2 cm) soft tissue hyperenhancing polypoid or intramural masses or areas of bowel wall thickening are typically seen in the bowel wall, although in many cases the primary tumor is not visualized. An irregular mesenteric soft tissue mass secondary to mesenteric tumor spread and associated desmoplastic response may be visualized, frequently with calcification and associated tethering, angulation, and/or thickening of adjacent small bowel loops. Distant metastases, which are characteristically hyperenhancing during the arterial phase of enhancement and most often seen in the liver, may also be encountered 


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