Clinical features of lumbar disc disease

What are the clinical features of lumbar disc disease? 

Acute lumbosacral disc herniation may cause a continuum of pain ranging from an isolated dull ache to severe radicular pain due to neurocompression in the foramen or lateral recess.

A rare complication is cauda equina syndrome due to a massive central herniation.

Pain is often sudden in onset and exacerbated with the Valsalva maneuver. Concomitant paraspinal spasm is often present.

Ninety-five percent of disc herniations occur at the L4/5 or L5/S1 disc spaces.

Herniations at higher levels are uncommon.

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