What are the clinical features of lumbar disc disease?
Acute lumbosacral disc herniation may cause a continuum of pain ranging from an isolated dull ache to severe radicular pain due to neurocompression in the foramen or lateral recess.
A rare complication is cauda equina syndrome due to a massive central herniation.
Pain is often sudden in onset and exacerbated with the Valsalva maneuver. Concomitant paraspinal spasm is often present.
Ninety-five percent of disc herniations occur at the L4/5 or L5/S1 disc spaces.
Herniations at higher levels are uncommon.