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Who is at risk for NSAID induced gastroduodenal ulcer disease?
- Older age (>65–70 years; relative risk [RR] 5–6× increased).
- Multiple NSAIDs (including ASA; RR 9×).
- History of peptic ulcer disease, with or without NSAIDs (RR 6×).
- Higher dose, prolonged use of NSAIDs (RR 7×).
- Chronic disease status such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes.
- Concomitant corticosteroid (prednisone ≥10 mg/day; RR 2×), warfarin (RR 6×), clopidogrel, or low-dose ASA.
- Suspected risk factors: tobacco, alcohol, existing infection with Helicobacter pylori (RR 3–4×).