Side effects of medications on Kidneys
• Hypertension and proteinuria are the most common adverse effects on the kidneys of the antiangiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib), which target the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway.
• The proton pump inhibitors are associated primarily with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN); however, less common adverse effects involving the kidneys include hyponatremia, impaired calcineurin inhibitor metabolism, and hypomagnesemia, and may increase the risk of incident chronic kidney disease.
• Checkpoint inhibitors (ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab) are a group of antineoplastic agents aimed at activating a person’s immune system to remove cancerous cells that can cause immune-mediated interstitial nephritis.
• Synthetic cannabinoids, also known as spice , is a drug of abuse that is associated with severe acute kidney injury related to acute tubular necrosis (ATN), AIN, and acute oxalate nephropathy.
• Bath salts, also called synthetic cathinones, are associated with ATN usually in the setting of rhabdomyolysis, although an exact mechanism of tubular injury has not been elucidated.
• BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) is a protooncogene that, when mutated, leads to a variety of malignancies; hence BRAF inhibitors, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, are effective cancer treatment options but associated with AKI from ATN and electrolyte abnormalities, respectively.
• Crystalline-induced nephropathy can occur with a variety of medications (ciprofloxacin, sulfadiazine, acyclovir, methotrexate), and the management is primarily aimed at correcting volume deficits and creating a more soluble environment to prevent precipitation.