Garlic Allium sativum

What is Garlic Allium sativum

Garlic is a dietary supplement derived from the bulb of Allium sativum, family Liliaceae.

It can be regarded simultaneously as a food and a medicinal herb and has been used as such since the times of the Egyptian pharoahs and the earliest Chinese dynasties.

Garlic is composed of many natural sulfur compounds, including a sulfur-containing amino acid, alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide). Alliin is pharmacologically inactive.

When garlic is crushed, alliin mixes with the enzyme alliinase and is converted to allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate). Allicin is unstable and upon steam distillation or oil maceration yields various diallyl and dimethyl sulfides plus E-ajoene and Z-ajoene. In general, the total activity of garlic is in its ability to produce allicin, which then produces other active principles.

This is referred to as the allicin yield. The allicin yield is decreased when garlic is exposed to heat or acidic environments.

Garlic and related alliums have been studied scientifically and clinically for several decades. Clinical studies partially support the use of garlic for modest lipid-lowering effects.

Antiplatelet activity has also been noted, but the effect of this activity on cardiovascular risk reduction is not clear.

There is insufficient evidence for topical application for infection or for oral supplemental treatment for type 2 diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, or prevention of cancer.

Clinical studies have used garlic products standardized to 1.3% alliin or 0.6% allicin yield. Not all products available in the U.S. meet these standards.

Garlic is listed in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and is ‘Generally Recognized As Safe’ (GRAS) by the FDA.

Indications

  1. atherosclerosis
  2. hypercholesterolemia
  3. tinea corporis
  4. tinea cruris
  5. tinea pedis
  6. type 2 diabetes mellitus

For the treatment of hypercholesterolemia

Side Effects

  1. angioedema
  2. atopic dermatitis
  3. bleeding
  4. burns
  5. conjunctivitis
  6. contact dermatitis
  7. diarrhea
  8. drug-induced body odor
  9. dyspepsia
  10. eructation
  11. flatulence
  12. halitosis
  13. headache
  14. hematoma
  15. nausea
  16. prolonged bleeding time
  17. pyrosis (heartburn)
  18. rhinitis
  19. skin irritation
  20. urticaria
  21. vomiting

Monitoring Parameters

  • laboratory monitoring not necessary

Contraindications

  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  • anticoagulant therapy
  • bleeding
  • breast-feeding
  • children
  • diabetes mellitus
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • infants
  • pregnancy
  • surgery
  • thrombolytic therapy

Interactions

  • Acarbose
  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetohexamide
  • Albiglutide
  • Alogliptin
  • Alogliptin; Metformin
  • Alogliptin; Pioglitazone
  • Amlodipine; Celecoxib
  • Anticoagulants
  • Antidiabetic Agents
  • Aspirin, ASA
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol
  • Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole
  • Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone
  • Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin
  • Canagliflozin
  • Canagliflozin; Metformin
  • Celecoxib
  • Chlorpropamide
  • Dapagliflozin
  • Dapagliflozin; Metformin
  • Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin
  • Diclofenac
  • Diclofenac; Misoprostol
  • Diflunisal
  • Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen
  • Diphenhydramine; Naproxen
  • Dulaglutide
  • Empagliflozin
  • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin
  • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Empagliflozin; Metformin
  • Ertugliflozin
  • Ertugliflozin; Metformin
  • Ertugliflozin; Sitagliptin
  • Esomeprazole; Naproxen
  • Ethanol
  • Etodolac
  • Exenatide
  • Famotidine; Ibuprofen
  • Fenoprofen
  • Flurbiprofen
  • Ginger, Zingiber officinale
  • Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba
  • Ginseng, Panax ginseng
  • Glimepiride
  • Glimepiride; Pioglitazone
  • Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone
  • Glipizide
  • Glipizide; Metformin
  • Glyburide
  • Glyburide; Metformin
  • Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen
  • Ibuprofen
  • Ibuprofen; Oxycodone
  • Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Indomethacin
  • Insulin Aspart
  • Insulin Aspart; Insulin Aspart Protamine
  • Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide
  • Insulin Detemir
  • Insulin Glargine
  • Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide
  • Insulin Glulisine
  • Insulin Lispro
  • Insulin Lispro; Insulin Lispro Protamine
  • Insulin, Inhaled
  • Isophane Insulin (NPH)
  • Ketoprofen
  • Ketorolac
  • Lansoprazole; Naproxen
  • Lente Insulin
  • Linagliptin
  • Linagliptin; Metformin
  • Liraglutide
  • Lixisenatide
  • Meclofenamate Sodium
  • Mefenamic Acid
  • Meloxicam
  • Metformin
  • Metformin; Pioglitazone
  • Metformin; Repaglinide
  • Metformin; Rosiglitazone
  • Metformin; Saxagliptin
  • Metformin; Sitagliptin
  • Miglitol
  • Nabumetone
  • Naproxen
  • Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Naproxen; Sumatriptan
  • Nateglinide
  • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
  • Oxaprozin
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Pioglitazone
  • Piroxicam
  • Platelet Inhibitors
  • Pramlintide
  • Regular Insulin
  • Regular Insulin; Isophane Insulin (NPH)
  • Repaglinide
  • Rofecoxib
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Saquinavir
  • Saxagliptin
  • Semaglutide
  • Simvastatin; Sitagliptin
  • Sitagliptin
  • Sulindac
  • Thrombolytic Agents
  • Tolazamide
  • Tolbutamide
  • Tolmetin
  • Ultralente Insulin
  • Valdecoxib
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