Which organizations make recommendations or monitor the use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging?
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is a not-for-profit, volunteer effort based in the United Kingdom. It is responsible for maintaining the International System of Radiological Protection. The ICRP studies and reports on many aspects of radiation protection, including radiation effects and protection of individuals who are exposed to ionizing radiation in the course of their medical care. The ICRP collaborates with the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), a standards body that establishes the units of ionizing radiation and the quantities they represent. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was chartered by the United States Congress. In conjunction with other organizations such as the ICRP and ICRU, it aims to publish information about radiation protection and radiation units. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a United States government agency responsible for the safe use of nuclear materials, including those used in medical imaging. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization affiliated with the United Nations. Its mission is to promote the safe and responsible use of nuclear energy. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) was involved in the original development of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard used for the creation, storage, and transfer of medical images. The Medical Imaging & Technology Alliance (MITA) of NEMA represents manufacturers of medical imaging equipment and recently introduced the computed tomography (CT) Dose Check initiative for alerts and notifications intended to decrease the risk of exposing patients to excess radiation during CT imaging. The Joint Commission (JC) is currently developing standards for diagnostic imaging and educates the public about medical imaging tests. In 2011, they introduced a Sentinel Event Alert regarding the risks associated with radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging, and requiring reporting of adverse events.