What surgical procedures are available for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis with shoulder involvement

What surgical procedures are available for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis with shoulder involvement?

Surgical procedures of the shoulder are performed predominantly for pain control. An increase in range of motion (ROM) usually does not occur. Replacement arthroplasty can include the entire joint, termed total shoulder arthroplasty, or only the humeral head, termed hemiarthroplasty. The principal factor in choosing between the two is the status of the glenoid. For maximal functional use and stability of a total shoulder arthroplasty, soft-tissue tension from an intact rotator cuff plays an integral role. If the rotator cuff is not intact and cannot be repaired, then a constrained arthroplasty, “reverse arthroplasty” (ball on glenoid side), bipolar arthroplasty, or an oversized hemiarthroplasty is chosen.