What are some uncommon pathogens seen in septic arthritis?
Some of the more uncommon pathogens associated with septic arthritis present in specific clinical settings or patient populations. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a common cause of septic arthritis in young, sexually active adults. Escherichia coli has a predilection for the elderly, intravenous drug users, and immunocompromised patients. Propionibacterium may be seen in joint arthroplasty infections, particularly in men with a shoulder arthroplasty. Septic joint following bite trauma usually affects the small joints of the hands and involves Pasteurella multocida in the case of animal bites and Eikenella corrodens in the case of human bites. Very rarely in immunocompromised patients, fungal and/or mycobacterial infection may result in a subacute or chronic oligoarticular septic joint. Parvovirus B19 is the most common viral arthritis, presenting as a symmetric polyarticular arthritis involving the joints of the hand as well as larger joints.