What are the different types of pulmonary edema, and what are some common causes of each?
Pulmonary edema can result from increased hydrostatic pressures and increased capillary permeability from endothelial injury. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is secondary to elevated pulmonary venous pressures and is typically the result of congestive heart failure, but it can also be seen after acute myocardial infarction, volume overload, and acute renal failure.
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is most commonly associated with ARDS. ARDS is a serious and common disorder with a high mortality rate due to diffuse alveolar damage and can be caused by a wide spectrum of both intrathoracic and extrathoracic disorders. Some additional causes of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema include chronic renal failure, anaphylaxis, drug toxicity, severe upper airway obstruction, neurogenic disorders, inhalational or burn injury, near-drowning, amniotic fluid embolism (during delivery), and fat embolism (after fracture).