What are Peritoneal ligaments small bowel mesentery mesocolon omentum?
The various “ligaments” of the peritoneum are actually peritoneal reflections that may contain fat, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and lymph nodes.
The small bowel mesentery is a double-layered fold of visceral peritoneum that contains subperitoneal fat, mesenteric blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and lymph nodes and connects the small bowel to the posterior body wall, extending from the left upper quadrant at the ligament of Treitz to the right lower quadrant at the ileocecal valve.
The mesocolon is similarly a double-layered fold of visceral peritoneum that connects intraperitoneal portions of the large bowel (i.e., the transverse colon and sigmoid colon) to the posterior body wall.
The lesser omentum is a double-layered peritoneal fold comprised of the gastrohepatic and hepatoduodenal ligaments that extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach and first portion of the duodenum to the liver.
The greater omentum is a large peritoneal fold comprised of the gastrosplenic and gastrocolic ligaments. It hangs from the greater curvature of the stomach in the anterior abdomen, folds upon itself, and then heads superiorly and posteriorly to attach to the posterior abdominal wall just superior to the attachment of the transverse mesocolon. Its redundant portion in the anterior abdomen fuses to itself during development inferior to the level of the transverse colon and is therefore comprised of 4 layers of visceral peritoneum. A portion of the greater omentum also extends between the stomach and spleen.
The peritoneal ligaments, small bowel mesentery, mesocolon, and omentum are often involved by disease processes and may serve as either barriers to or conduits of disease spread.